The Oxford Handbook of Medical Ethnomusicology (Oxford Handbooks)

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Eventually, comparative musicology began experiencing changes. Following the Second World War , issues regarding the ethical contexts of comparative musicology began to emerge.

As comparative musicology was founded primarily in Europe, most scholars based their comparisons in Western music. In an effort to adjust the Western bias present in their studies, academics such as Jaap Kunst began adjusting their approaches in analysis and fieldwork to become more globally focused. Ethnomusicology has evolved both in terminology and ideology since its formal inception in the late 19th century. Although practices paralleling ethnomusicological work have been noted throughout colonial history, an Armenian priest known as Komitas Vardapet is considered one of the pioneers to ethnomusicology's rise to prominence in While studying in Berlin at Frederick William University and attending the International Music Society, Vardapet transcribed over pieces of music.

In his notes, he emphasized cultural and religious elements as well as social aspects of music and poetry. Inspired by these thoughts, many Western European nations began to transcribe and categorize music based on ethnicity and culture. Inspired by these thoughts, many Western European nations began to put many ethnic and cultural pieces of music onto paper and separate them.

In the hyphen was removed with ideological intent to signify the discipline's validity and independence from the fields of musicology and anthropology. These changes to the field's name paralleled its internal shifts in ideological and intellectual emphasis. Comparative musicology, an initial term intended to differentiate what would become ethnomusicology and musicology, was the area of study concerned with utilizing methods of acoustics to measure pitches and intervals, quantitatively comparing different kinds of music.

In , Mantle Hood established the Institute of Ethnomusicology at the University of California at Los Angeles, largely legitimizing the field and solidifying its position as an academic discipline. In the s, ethnomusicology was becoming more well known outside of the small circle of scholars who had founded and fostered the early development of the field. Alan Merriam classified these ethnomusicological participants in four groups: [35]. One defining feature of this decade was the advent of anthropological influence within ethnomusicology.

During this time, the discipline of ethnomusicology experienced a shift of focus away from musical data, such as pitch and formal structure, toward humans and human relationships. The incorporation of theoretical frameworks from the field of anthropology also led to an increasingly welcoming attitude towards accepting yet more fields of study, such as linguistics and psychology, into the broader pursuit of understanding music as it functions in or "as" culture.

Throughout this decade, the tensions regarding comparative approaches continued to come into question in ethnomusicological circles. The s ushered in a heightened awareness of bias and representation in ethnomusicology, meaning that ethnomusicologists took into consideration the effects of biases they brought to their studies as usually outgroup members, as well as the implications of how they choose to represent the ethnography and music of the cultures they study.

The Oxford handbook of medical ethnomusicology

Historically, Western field workers dubbed themselves experts on foreign music traditions once they felt they had a handle on the music, but these scholars ignored differences in worldview, priority systems, and cognitive patterns, and thought that their interpretation was truth. In particular, ethnomusicologist Timothy Rice called for a more human-focused study of ethnomusicology, [40] putting emphasis on the processes that bind music and society together in musical creation and performance. In particular, Rice's model asks "how do people historically construct, socially maintain and individually create and experience music?

Another concern that came to the forefront in the s is known as reflexivity. The ethnomusicologist and his or her culture of study have a bidirectional, reflexive influence on one another in that it is possible not only for observations to affect the observer, but also for the presence of the observer to affect what they observe. The awareness of the nature of oral tradition and the problems it poses for reliability of source came into discussion during the s. The meaning of a particular song is in the kind of flux associated with any oral tradition, each successive performer bringing his or her own interpretation.

Furthermore, regardless of original intended meaning, once a song is originally interpreted by the audience, recalled later in memory when recounting the performance to a researcher, interpreted by the researcher, and then interpreted by the researcher's audience, it can, and does, take on a variety of different meanings.

By the late s, the field of ethnomusicology had begun examining popular music and the effect of media on musics around the world. Several definitions of popular music exist but most agree that it is characterized by having widespread appeal.

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Peter Manuel adds to this definition by distinguishing popular music by its association with different groups of people, performances by musicians not necessarily trained or intellectual, and dispersion through broadcasting and recording. Popular music can operate less deliberately and focuses on creating a general effect or impression, usually focusing on emotion.

Thus, a duality emerged from this standardization, an industry-driven manipulation of the public's tastes to give people what they want while simultaneously guiding them to it. In the case of rock music, while the genre may have grown out of politicized forces and another form of meaningful motivation, the corporate influence over popular music became integral to its identity that directing public taste became increasingly easier.

However, because popular music assumes such a corporatized role and therefore remains subject to a large degree of standardization, ambiguity exists whether the music reflects actual cultural values or those only of the corporate sector seeking economic profit. From the fame and economic success surrounding such superstars, subcultures continued to arise, such as the rock and punk movements, only perpetuated by the corporate machine that also shaped the musical aspect of popular music.

Musical interaction through globalization played a huge role in ethnomusicology in the s. Ethnomusicologists began looking into a 'global village', straying away from a specialized look at music within a specific culture. There are two sides to this globalization of music: on one hand it would bring more cultural exchange globally, but on the other hand it could facilitate the appropriation and assimilation of musics. Ethnomusicologists have approached this new combination of different styles of music within one music by looking at the musical complexity and the degree of compatibility.

This Westernization and modernization of music created a new focus of study; ethnomusicologists began to look at how different musics interact in the s.

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By the s, musicology which had previously limited its focus almost exclusively to European art music , began to look more like ethnomusicology, with greater awareness of and consideration for sociocultural contexts and practices beyond analysis of art music compositions and biographical studies of major European composers. Ethnomusicologists continued to deal with and consider the effects of globalization on their work.

Bruno Nettl identifies Westernization and modernization as two concurrent and similar cultural trends that served to help streamline musical expression all over the world. While creeping globalization had an undeniable effect on cultural homogeneity, it also helped broaden musical horizons all over the world. Rather than simply lamenting the continuing assimilation of folk music of non-western cultures, many ethnomusicologists chose to examine exactly how non-western cultures dealt with the process of incorporating western music into their own practices to facilitate the survival of their previous traditions.

With the ongoing globalization of music, many genres influenced each other and elements from foreign music became more prevalent in mainstream popular music. Diaspora populations such as the Punjab population in England were studied due to the characteristics of their music showing signs of the effects of global media.

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Their music, like many other music of displaced cultures, was made up of elements from the folk music of their culture along with the popular music of their location. Through this process the idea of transnationalism in music occurred.

Additionally, postcolonial thought remained a focus of ethnomusicological literature. Its differences from Western music are often considered deficiencies, [ citation needed ] and the emphasis on "African rhythm" prevalent throughout music scholarship prevents accurate comparison of other musical elements such as melody and harmony.

Influenced by postcolonial thought theories, Agawu focuses on deconstructing the Eurocentric intellectual hegemony surrounding understanding African music and the notation of the music itself. Overall, Agawu implores scholars to search for similarities rather than differences in their examinations of African music, as a heightened exploration of similarities would be much more empowering and intellectually satisfying.

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The actual complexity and sophistication of African music goes unexplored when scholars simply talk about it within these categories and move on. Agawu also calls for the direct empowerment of postcolonial African subjects within music scholarship, in response to attempts to incorporate native discourses into scholarship by Western authors that he believes have led to inaccurate representation and a distortion of native voices.

Agawu worries of the possible implementation of the same Western ideals but with an "African" face, "in what we have, rather, are the views of a group of scholars operating within a field of discourse, an intellectual space defined by Euro-American traditions of ordering knowledge". Currently, scholarship that may have historically been identified as ethnomusicology is now classified as sound studies. Ethnomusicology is not limited to the study of music from non-Western cultures.

It is discipline that encompasses various approaches to the study of the many musics around the world that emphasize their particular dimensions cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, etc. Western music and its influences are thus also subject to ethnomusicological interest. The influence of the media on consumerism in Western society is a bi-directional effect, according to Thomas Turino.

Record companies and producers of music recognize this reality and respond by catering to specific groups. The culmination of identity groups teenagers in particular across the country represents a significant force that can shape the music industry based on what is being consumed. Ethnomusicologists often apply theories and methods from cultural anthropology , cultural studies and sociology as well as other disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. Therefore, ethnomusicological work can be characterized as featuring a substantial, intensive ethnographic component.

Two approaches to ethnomusicological studies are common: the anthropological and the musicological. Ethnomusicologists using the anthropological approach generally study music to learn about people and culture. Those who practice the musicological approach study people and cultures to learn about music. Charles Seeger and Mantle Hood were two ethnomusicologists that adopted the musicological approach.

Hood started one of the first American university programs dedicated to ethnomusicology, often stressing that his students must learn how to play the music they studied. Further, prompted by a college student's personal letter, he recommended that potential students of ethnomusicology undertake substantial musical training in the field, a competency that he described as " bi-musicality.

Seeger also sought to transcend comparative practices by focusing on the music and how it impacted those in contact with it. Similar to Hood, Seeger valued the performance component of ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicologists following the anthropological approach include scholars such as Steven Feld and Alan Merriam. The anthropological ethnomusicologists stress the importance of field work and using participant observation.

This can include a variety of distinct fieldwork practices, including personal exposure to a performance tradition or musical technique, participation in a native ensemble, or inclusion in a myriad of social customs. The two approaches to ethnomusicology bring unique perspectives to the field, providing knowledge both about the effects culture has on music, and about the impact music has on culture.

The great diversity of musics found across the world has necessitated an interdisciplinary approach to ethnomusicological study. Analytical and research methods have changed over time, as ethnomusicology has continued solidifying its disciplinary identity, and as scholars have become increasingly aware of issues involved in cultural study see Theoretical Issues and Debates.

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This debate is well exemplified by a series of articles between Mieczyslaw Kolinski and Marcia Herndon in the mids; these authors differed strongly on the style, nature, implementation, and advantages of analytical and synthetic models including their own. By her definition, analysis seeks to break down parts of a known whole according to a definite plan, whereas synthesis starts with small elements and combines them into one entity by tailoring the process to the musical material.

Herndon also debated on the subjectivity and objectivity necessary for a proper analysis of a musical system. As a result of the above debate and ongoing ones like it, ethnomusicology has yet to establish any standard method or methods of analysis. Perhaps the first of these objective systems was the development of the cent as a definitive unit of pitch by phonetician and mathematician Alexander J.

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Ellis Ellis used his system, which divided the octave into cents cents in each Western semitone , as a means of analyzing and comparing scale systems of different musics. Alan Lomax's method of cantometrics employed analysis of songs to model human behavior in different cultures.

He posited that there is some correlation between musical traits or approaches and the traits of the music's native culture. Mieczyslaw Kolinski measured the exact distance between the initial and final tones in melodic patterns.